A gene is a length of DNA which codes for the production of a particular protein by a cell. Scientists are now able to take genes from one organism and put them into another. This is caused genetic engineering. Technology is developing very fast and it brings new inventions. Although genetic engineering has opened many possibilities of improving human life, it has also brought many possible dangers with it. We must be very careful about these dangers and should also take precautions so that we don’t come face to face with them.
Genetic engineering has a lot of benefit to human life. For example, some people are not able to make the protein insulin. It is hormone which helps to regulate the concentration of glucose in your blood. People whose bodies can not make enough insulin have the disease diabetes. For a long time, the only source of insuline was animals such as pigs which has been killed for food. Now genetic engineering has produced bacteria which make human insulin. Many other proteins can also be produced by genetic engineering. Human growth hormone is now obtained this way. Some children do not screte enough growth hormone and usually they don’t grow properly .For many years the only solution of this problem was to take the growth hormone from dead people. it was very expensive and also had the risk of spreading of diseases. Now that genetic engineering is developed ıt’s also widely available and is much cheaper.
Furthermore, Factor 8. is made by genetic engineering. This is a protein normally present in the blood which helps the blood to clot. However, some people’s blood cannot clot properly who have the disease haemoplia. Before genetic engineering was developed doctors extracted factor 8. from donated blood. Before AIDS first appeared and it was not know that it was caused by HIV many people were given blood containing this viruses. However, now there is no risk because the donated blood is screned to make that it does not contain HIV. Genetic engineering has also helped the evolution of food production. It has been used to produce enzymes used in manufacturing vegetarian cheese. During this production, an enzyme called rennin that was extracted from the stomach of calves was used before genetic engineering made the laboratory made enzymes. So new vegetarians can also eat cheese since it is not animal-bazed. Also, genetic engineering was used to produce an enzyme that controlled ripening with this discovery vegetables and fruits do not go bad so quickly. They can be kept on the selves longer. We can insert genes into animal cell including human cell. Scientists are still researching on gene therapy to help people with their genetic diseases. However, there are still several problems with this technique that require further development.
Althoug genetic engineering has many benefits there are social, ethical and moral concerns. Genetic engineering means producing bacteria and viruses with different genes from the usual ones. This could cause health hazards. If these microorganisms are changed in such a way that they become pathogens, they might cause a new disease for which there is no cure. Besides, genetic engineering could produce environmental hazards the most important issued that genetic engineering causes is about what is morally and ethically acceptable to society. It is very important to control the automes of producing new genes and to make sure that there are no major genetic faults.
Like all major new scientific discoveries and inventions, genetic engineering has tremendous potential to provide all sorts of benefits on our lives. As well as some potential for harm scientists and everyone else must remain well aware of this. If as any people possible, whether they are scientists or not try to stay well informed about what developments are taking place then we can do our best to ensure that the good uses of genetic engineering go ahead wile the potential problems are stopped in their tracks.